Nervine and spices substances
The nervine substances are called so because they act on the nervous system, and therefore, indirectly, stimulate the processes of digestion and absorption of food.
The main nerve foods are coffee, tea and cocoa, which contain as active ingredients as caffeine, theophylline and theobromine.
These active principles (alkaloids) have all three present in coffee, tea and cocoa, but caffeine is present in coffee, tea in the theophylline and theobromine in cocoa; the first (caffeine) stimulates more the nervous system, theophylline that cardiac instead while theobromine has an intermediate function with respect to the first two; All three have a diuretic effect.
The coffee is obtained from the beans of the Coffea arabica plants (the most valuable) and Robusta, the most important of the approximately 60 known species of the Rubiaceae family.
The Arabica has a flat seed, deep green, and roasting buy a sweet and aromatic flavor. Robusta has a seed round, pale green, and the roasting acquires a bitter taste.
The choice depends on the type of coffee, as well as the price, especially since taste, which in turn depends on mixing done by the manufacturers of the different quality and the roasting of the mixture.
The Italian consumer was accustomed to essentially choose between the red and the quality grade gold: the first contains very robust and therefore has a stronger taste, the latter prevails aroma of coffee "Arabic" and "sweet."
The coffee is sold as raw coffee, or roasted (toasted), or decaffeinated, or soluble lyophilized.
The roasting is carried out at about 200 ° C for 12-20 minutes. With the roasting you have the partial combustion of sugars and proteins and the partial elimination of caffeine, and coffee assumes that characteristic scent.
The roasted coffee beans must be displayed with tags indicating the type and price.
To manage a coffee store and process it (roasting, packaging, etc.) You need a license Revenue Agency, but it is not mandatory for bar patrons and for the stores that only carry out the sale of coffee.
It must also be a loading and unloading register for those who have packaged or bulk coffee for more than 5 Kg. The roasted coffee may deteriorate when stored for a long time to air and without preserving it from light and moisture.
The most common fraud on coffee are: mixture with poorer quality, oiling with glycerin or vaseline oil in order to improve the appearance, spraying with water during roasting to increase their weight.
With the tea-term Sales of the dried leaves of the theaceae family of plants that grow almost exclusively in Asia.
The types of marketed teas are classified into two families: green tea and tea blacks.
The quality of black tea differ depending on the age of the leaves: Pekoe, young, Souchong, young, Bohea, the most common type.
Then, according to the source, the tea is divided into: Chinese, Japanese, Ceylon, India, etc.
Cocoa is obtained from the seeds of a plant called Theobroma cacao, native to Central America, which belongs to the Sterculiaceae family. Forti producing countries are Ivory Coast and Brasile.Nella processing cacaco, the seeds are fermented, then dried, and then crushed, to obtain a brown and viscous paste, called cocoa mass. By passing the mass of cocoa through the heated presses, the grease that comes out, cooled, it constitutes the cocoa butter, while the residual part is converted into grains, which milled, give rise to cocoa powder.
The herbs and spices are used in small amounts in foods to increase the flavor and make them more appealing, allowing - good thing - even less use of salt and condiment fats.
The aroma and flavor of herbs and spices are caused by the essential oils they contain, which are released when these are broken, crushed or cut; They are perceived by our senses even in very small amounts.
Among the various herbs, which are formed from the stigmas from flowers, roots, and sometimes from different plant seeds, we basil, oregano, parsley, rosemary and capers, mint, and sage .
Basil is used mainly in the preparation of tomato sauces and tomato salads, and the pesto (sauce made with basil, olive oil, pecorino cheese, pine nuts, salt and garlic).
Oregano, the pizza and meat to the "tomato sauce"; parsley, a little 'everywhere.
Rosemary, the roasted meat or fish, grilled in, and the coals of the barbecue.
Among the various spez