Spirits and liqueurs
Classification and standards of spirits and liqueurs.
They are obtained by distillation of fermented musts of different cereals, or even fruit, so as to maintain the aromatic principles of fermented substances (Article 1, Presidential Decree no. 297/1997).
The fundamental operation of the spirits of the production process is precisely the distillation, which allows the ethyl alcohol concentration, contained in small quantities in fermented.
Important is aging, which lasts for years, and in special containers depending on the type of brandy (three to 10 years in oak casks for whiskey, and many years in oak barrels for cognac).
The spirits placed on the market must have an alcohol content of not less than 38 ° and not more than 60 ° (most spirits, such as cognac, brandy, whiskey, gin, is about 40 °; brandy also arrives at 50 °, rum and vodka to 60 °).
The spirits can be classified into: ü wine Acquaviti: wine distillates who take the production zone name, brandy (Italian and Spanish) and cognac (French) ü Grappa, obtained by distillation of the pomace (aging by law not less than 12 months reserve grappa name, if aged over 18 months); if PGI, not lower than 40 ° by law. ü Acquaviti of cereals, or whiskey, obtained by distillation of the mash of cereals. The best whiskeys are obtained from barley (malt whiskey) and oats (corn whiskey) Whiskey or Scottish or Irish, while barley and oats malt (it is a blended) or Whiskey U.S.A. if made from corn (Straight Bourbon), or rye (Straight Rye) or Canadian Whiskey, made from mixtures of corn, barley, and rye. ü Spirits sugar cane, rum or brandy ü fruit: plums (slivovitz), morello cherry (Kirsch); if PGI, by law not lower than 40 ° ü Gin, wheat is a brandy with juniper ü Rhum aroma, the best is the one obtained by the fermentation and distillation of the wort sugar cane, while the poorer quality is obtained from molasses (byproduct of sugar production starting from sugar beet). The rum is colorless, but with aging takes on a reddish-brown color and a particular mandatory aroma.Indicazioni on containers: name, degree of alcohol, the manufacturer names and the bottler and location of the facility (or name and importer's premises ). On the clamp cap should no longer be applied with the mark of the Stato.Acquaviti and distillates - D. P. R. n. Grappa 297/1997 - art. Presidential Decree 10 297/1997
They include a very diverse group of alcoholic beverages, which are placed on the market with indications on the type container: <> followed by trademark or a fancy name.
Examples: Maraschino liqueur Fernet, coffee liqueur, etc. They are obtained from mixtures of water, ethyl alcohol, sugar, essences and aromas. The degree of alcohol varies between 25 ° and 50 °.
Alcoholic beverages - D. M. n. 438/1988
Fortified wines - EC Reg. No. 1493/1999, Annex I