The food groups

In the chapter "Food Balance" Lesson n. 2 we examined the seven nutritional groups.

Recall that the nutrition experts have divided foods into 7 groups, each of which includes foods between their equivalents on the nutritional plan.


At that time, we expressed the fundamental criterion that should be the basis for a healthy diet, and that is that you simply choose at least one food from each of the seven groups, so that they are all represented in the daily diet to make sure that no nutritious miss our body.

The seven food groups are: 1. Meat, fish, eggs; 2. Dairy; 3. Cereals and derivatives, tubers; 4. Vegetables 5. Fats and Oils for seasoning; 6. Vegetables and fruit sources of vitamin A; 7. Vegetables and fruit sources of vitamin C.

In this sixth lesson, we will talk mainly of bread and pasta, wheat derivatives, which is the most important cereal in the diet of Mediterranean peoples.
But first you need to say something of this food group cereal, and other components, especially rice. Del wheat and dairy products then we will discuss in the next chapter.

They belong to the third group cereals and potatoes, more properly called tubers. This group, of course, is of plant origin.

The nutrients made from these foods are mostly carbohydrates of low biological value protein (lacking especially lysine), and some B vitamins

Carbohydrates are energy foods, that are broken - "burn" - quickly in the body, providing readily available energy.

Cereals belong to the family Gramineae. They are: wheat (or wheat), rice, maize (or corn), barley, and rye and oats.

The fruits, or kernels, constitute the main part intended for human consumption, which is separate from the ears.
The caryopsis (grain) consists of three major parts: pericarp (outer casing), endosperm, and germ.

The central part, the endosperm, also known as albumen, contains the endosperm, consisting of starch, which is a carbohydrate. Under the nutritional aspect, this middle part is the most important: as a result of grinding, it gives rise to the flour. <Br> The most cereals consists of carbohydrates (about 70%), followed by water (about 14%), then the protein (about 10%), the rest from fat and minerals.

For the corn, which is sown in autumn and harvested in June and July, with threshing you have the separation of the grain from the stalks and the husks, which respectively give rise to the straw, which originates from all the stems, used for forage, and chaff, which is formed from the set of husks, used for packaging.

A modern combine harvester in a single step off the kernels from the ears, and separates from the straw; the latter comes dallamietitrebbiatrice already packaged in cylindrical rolls, deposited with symmetry in plowed field.

The crop from the combine is paddy rice, formed by the kernels coated husk.
From the processing of the rice, after removal of the husk and complete refining, which is accomplished in multiple steps, you get the rice.
In fact, Re-refined you are obtained before the semi-refined rice and commercial rice, and then the refined rice and kaolin rice.
 The refining includes, inter alia, a husking - passage of the kernels coated between two rollers that rotate at different speeds, rub off the giumelle -, with which you get the brown rice, and two successive Bleaching - passage of the caryopses between frosted cones which remove the superficial part - with which we obtain the semi-refined rice and commercial rice; with a third bleaching, you have the polished rice, which, shined with seed oils and vaseline, gives rise to the grade, polished rice.
There are in Italy more than fifteen commercial varieties of rice merchant, grouped into four main groups, depending on the length, width and shape of the grain, which in turn determine the specific use.
They are:
Rice grains comunea short and small, eg. whol .: Table varieties and native; for soups and dolciRiso semifinoa grains semilunghi and medium, eg. variety: Vialone nano and Juliet; for minestrone soup and insalateRiso finoa long and large grains, eg. commercial variety: Vialone and Rizzotto; for risotto and timballiRiso very long and large superfinograni, eg. varieties: Camaroli and Race 77; for rice and side dishes
The merchant rice, subjected to washing with glucose solutions and talc (glazing), gives rise to the polished rice. In Italy, the most commonly used rice is white rice.
The nutritional value of rice is affected by the processing technique, which results in significant loss of nutrients localized in the peripheral layers of the kernel and endosperm.
Starting from the paddy rice, and with a particular processing technique, which allows to migrate within the grain a good part of the vitamins and minerals that would otherwise be lost during the polishing, you can get the rice "parboiled" (or amber rice , ivory).
Corn or corn.
graminacea native of South America, then spread to Europe and elsewhere (and in Italy called "turkish wheat" to distinguish it from our wheat); the United States are strong producers of the variety Zea mays indented.
In Italy there are three commercial varieties of corn:
Corn growing primaveriliciclo: about six months; Mais summer or vegetative agostaniciclo respectively 40 and 50 days; Mais quarantini cinquantiniiciclo vegetative or respectively 40 and 50 days.
Currently the corn is intended for almost all for zootechnical use or to the industries, which derive starch, glucose, alcohol and germ oil. In part, the flour is used to prepare porridge or flakes.
The barley.
Barley is a cereal grasses provided by some kind of Hordeum.
Depending on the different arrangement of the grains in the ear, there are three types of barley: six-row, square, and couplet.
A good barley must be dry (maximum 15% humidity), pale yellow, bright, uniform and large grains. Barley powder is used for breakfast. Barley is also used as fodder and for the preparation of malt, and then beer.
Rye and oats.
Both of these grains are used as fodder. Rye adapts to cold climates; Rye flour is used in South Tyrol for a type of local bread (flour can be polluted by a parasitic fungus called ergot, which is poisonous). Oats are used as fodder for cattle, and a small part for dietetic bread and dietary products, such as oatmeal.
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