The milk

The milk is characterized by contributions in high quality 'biological proteins (lactalbumin and casein), and for the balanced intake of calcium and phosphorus.
The milk proteins, represented by '80% casein and 20% from lactalbumin, ensure a third of the average daily requirement.
These proteins contain the right amounts and proportions of all the amino acids the body needs, and in particular those essential amino acids that the body is not 'able to manufacture for itself.

The fats found in cow's milk are saturated for two thirds, characterized by good digestibility 'and with limited abilities to raise cholesterol levels in the blood.
In addition, the availability on the market of milk semi-skimmed and skimmed adjusts very well fat intake by bodies with disturbed metabolism.
In milk carbohydrates are represented only by lactose, which is not found in any other food, and it 'important for the development of nerve tissue in the first months of life.

Calcium and phosphorus are essential nutrients that are important for the construction and maintenance of bones and teeth, phosphorus and also for the defense of the nervous system. The milk contains more calcium than phosphorus (unlike other widely used foods, such as cereals, legumes, etc., For which the opposite is true) and plays a role in balancing diets that otherwise would rachitogene.

Rules on production and trade.

 

The production and trade of milk and milk-based products are regulated by various laws.

We mention the most important, in chronological order:
• D.P.R. January 14, 1997, n. 54
• Law August 3, 2004, n. 204

For more detail, you can access to the originals of the two provisions mentioned in the list by clicking on their names in the Extra section.

 Presidential Decree January 14, 1997, 54

This law is entitled: "Regulations implementing the 92/46 and 92/47 / EEC on the production and placing on the market of milk and milk-based products".

The Presidential Decree n.54 / 97, consisting of 23 different art. and from the four Annexes A, B, C, D, after having introduced the scope of the dpr (article 1), and introduced into the next art.2 the most important definitions, such as "raw milk", "food heat-treated milk "," products based on milk (dairy products, and composite milk products) ", switch to treat, among others, the following topics: requirements for the production, heat-treated milk, health control, self-control (l ' HACCP for the milk processing companies), standards for establishments and centers, etc. We then the four annexes, which the articles refer to the details and operational rules.

The Annex A concerns the conditions for the admission of raw milk to processing establishments and processing.

Annex B deals with the general conditions and requirements for the approval of establishments for the treatment and processing establishments.

Annex C, the most important, are the requirements for the production of heat-treated milk and milk-based products: in particular, in Chapter 1, paragraph A, paragraph 4 of the pasteurized milk requirements are established and paragraph 5 unit sales of UHT milk.

Appendix D is the tasks and skills of the Community Reference Laboratory, based in Paris.

 Law August 3, 2004, 204

This law is entitled: "Conversion into law, with amendments, of Decree-Law of 24 June 2004, n. 157, laying down urgent provisions for the labeling of certain food products.

The product names "fresh pasteurized milk" and "high quality fresh milk pasteurized", to be reported in labeling cow's milk for human consumption, are reserved exclusively to the milk that complies with the law.

The expiration date of "fresh pasteurized milk" and "high quality fresh milk pasteurized 'and' determined in the sixth day following that of the heat treatment, except that the manufacturer does not indicate a shorter period.

The use of the term 'fresh' in the sales names of cow's milk for human consumption and 'reserved for products whose shelf life does not exceed that of the six days of the date of heat treatment.

The labeling of milk must carry the mandatory, in addition to other indications required by law (Legislative Decree 109/92), the indication of the place of origin or provenance.

Obviously, the milk is subjected to hygienic and sanitary controls, from the time of production in the companies until the time of sale to the final consumer.

They are subject to permissions, and auditing: Companies agricultural production (controls on the cow's health, but also on hygiene controls of local Milking - ie, the stables, the personnel, s


Milk industry and derivatives.
By law, the term "milk" shall mean cow's milk. Otherwise, you must specify the origin, for example, "goat milk", "buffalo milk", etc.
Below, we describe briefly the general scheme of the products obtained from the processing of milk.

 

 


The raw milk, namely the natural cow milk, is the raw material used to:
Drinking milk
Dairy
Products of milk compounds
 
 
As we shall see in the following three paragraphs, raw milk collected in the 'Company production is transported to a specific company, depending on which of the three products mentioned above to be obtained.
Words in italics are those that we will use in the present regulations (Presidential Decree 14 January 1997, 54).
 
Path of drinking milk
 
For the production of drinking milk, raw milk must be transported (refrigerated transport to no more than 6 ° C) by the Company of production or from the collection center to the heat treatment plant.
The collection center has facilities for the storage in a refrigerated environment, and centrifugal filtration, and plays an intermediary role between production Companies, from which collects the raw milk, and the heat treatment plant.
 
In the heat treatment plant, possibly after refrigerated storage, the milk undergoes a centrifugal cleaning, titration of fat, if any creaming, and then the process of pasteurization or sterilization - referred to shortly discuss in detail -, followed by homogenizing, degassing , and packaging: are obtained pasteurized milk and sterilized milk, in whole types, semi-skimmed, skimmed.
 
Remember that milk is a perishable substance, both because of its high water content which by the nature and variety of its nutrients.
The technological solutions to conservation problems, the transport of milk and distribution had to take account both of hygiene and health factors and the fact that milk, especially when heat treated, it tends to lose some of the nutritional properties, especially certain vitamins particularly temperature sensitive.
So, for the entire chain, from production to the consumer, the Company and the milk produced by them or worked, must have well predefined requirements of the law, as we will see later.
 
 
Dairy
 
For the production of dairy products, raw milk must be transported by the company of manufacture or by the Center for Standardization at the processing plant, and is transformed into cheese, butter, cottage cheese, etc.. (Processing hints will be given by treating the individual topics in the next chapter).
 
 
Products of milk compounds
 
For the production of composite milk products (ice cream, etc.), Raw milk is sent by the company of manufacture or by the Center for Standardization at the processing plant
 
The Center for Standardization is a facility that has equipment for refrigeration and centrifuges for cleaning and skimming, and all that is needed to transform the raw milk in the interim, with the standard requirements, to be launched at a treatment plant for machining of the final product.
 
Article. 2 of Presidential Decree Of 14 January 1997 54 uses the term "plant transformation" is to indicate the structure for the transformation of the raw milk in dairy products, both for that transformation into composite milk products; however, of course, common name only, since both the structures and the processing phases are different, in the case of different final products.
 
 
THE MILK.
Features.
Milk is a complete and essential food among the healthiest and cheapest at our disposal.
As mentioned above, the term "milk" shall mean cow's milk.
By law, the milk "raw" is defined as the product obtained by milking a regular, uninterrupted and full of dairy cows in good health and nutrition.
To the milk of other mammals, it is necessary to specify the origin (for example, buffalo milk, sheep's milk, etc.).
Milk is a complete food because a liter of whole milk contains an average of 3.5% protein, 3.7% fat, 4.5% sugar and about 1% of minerals (missing only the iron); it is also lighter, because about 88% consists of water.
In addition, milk is an essential food because it helps regulate a healthy muscle development, facilitates the process of blood clotting, helps the development of bones and teeth and provides the energy needed for physical activity.
The milk is characterized by contributions in high quality 'biological proteins (lactalbumin and casein), and for the balanced intake of calcium and phosphorus.
Milk protein, sales rep

CONTROLLO

ui containers and collection systems of the raw milk straight from the cow, and the temporary local refrigeration); refrigerated transport systems at 4 ° C. from rags to riches dairies; the milk plants sanitation systems (pasteurization, sterilization); refrigerated transport, always at 4 ° C., by the Central milk to retail outlets, and the conservation of the milk in refrigerated cabinets in retail outlets (cold chain). It 'a good idea to make sure the refrigerator compartment where we put the milk just bought (otherwise it is prudent to take out an ice chest) is at 4 ° C. These precautions are necessary because the high water content in the milk (about 88%) promotes the very rapid development of bacteria present in milk, whether originating from the cow, but more often from the external environment. The milk sales descriptions depend essentially on the following main parameters: • Heat treatments • Skimming and other treatments start to examine in detail the heat treatment. -------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ The Milk heat treatment The heat treatment may consist of a: • pasteurization process; • sterilization process; • process do microfiltration (less used) pasteurization process Pasteurization allows to completely destroy the pathogenic germs, without, however, completely eliminate the non-pathogenic microorganisms (saprophytes), ie lactobacilli able to ferment lactose with the production of lactic acid, and allows to maintain substantially unaltered the nutritive value of milk. Since pasteurization process arise two types of milk: fresh pasteurized • Milk pasteurized • High quality fresh milk. For both the pasteurization process is the same: pasteurization HTST (High Temperature, Short Time for, and for a short time ie high temperature): the raw milk is brought to a temperature between 75 ° C. and 85 ° C., for at least 15 seconds. Then, abruptly it is immediately cooled to 3-4 ° C. In this way (heating followed by rapid cooling), all part of germs and spores are destroyed. The milk must be raw when it reaches the processing plant and must undergo a single pasteurisation treatment, within 48 hours of milking. The high-quality fresh pasteurized milk must meet the most stringent health criteria to commercialize both public and milk stations that private companies must have been specifically authorized by the ASL. Some requirements are more stringent: for example, the percentage of whey protein should be at least 15.5%. Finally, the high-quality fresh milk pasteurized, by law, must not have lost fat or protein during processing and therefore does not exist in version skimmed or partially skimmed. Sterilization process The sterilization process UHT UHT (Ultra High Temperature) is a thermal treatment UHT which completely destroys both the germs that the spores, preventing their proliferation. The UHT long-life milk is subjected to a recovery process during which the milk is heated to 140 ° C (UHT: Ultra High Temperature) for a time of 2-3 seconds and then returned to a temperature of 18 ° C. The UHT milk has a duration of 90 days at room temperature. The organoleptic and dietary characteristics are inferior to the pasteurized milk. Process Microfiltration In this case it is mandatory to label of "micro-filtered milk." In simple terms, the terms microfiltration technique consists in the following procedure: in a central arrival we separate the raw cream and the remaining liquid part of the skimmed milk. The first undergoes a thermal treatment for a first elimination of bacteria. The skim milk is microfiltered instead, ie past through special ceramic filters that retain bacteria and other foreign cells. It follows a recombination of two parts, a homogenization, and finally a pasteurization, to ensure that the elimination of pathogenic germs is complete. The microfiltered pasteurized milk maintains its organoleptic characteristics for 7-8 days, and is quite similar to whole milk. The expiration date of the milk pasteurized microfiltered is determined in the tenth day The milk packs must carry, inter alia, an indication of the designation of the type of milk and the term of preservation with the words "use by" followed by the date (day, month, year). The package must also bear the health mark in an oval contour. Creaming, and other treatments depending on the fat content of the milk is divided into: whole milk: it has a minimum fat content of 3%; semi-skimmed milk has a fat content between 1 and 1.8 % skimmed milk has a fat content of less than 0.3% Alt

CONTROLLO

 

microfiltration process

In this case the label of "micro-filtered milk" is required.

In simple terms, the microfiltration technique consists in the following procedure:
upon arrival at the central separating the raw cream and the remaining liquid part of the skimmed milk.

The first undergoes a thermal treatment for a first elimination of bacteria.

The skim milk is microfiltered instead, ie past through special ceramic filters that retain bacteria and other foreign cells.

It follows a recombination of two parts, a homogenization, and finally a pasteurization, to ensure that the elimination of pathogenic germs is complete.

The microfiltered pasteurized milk maintains its organoleptic characteristics for 7-8 days, and is quite similar to whole milk.

The micro-filtered pasteurized milk due date is determined on the tenth day

The milk cartons must carry, among other things, indicating the name of the type of milk and the retention period with the words "use by" followed by the date (day, month, year).

The package must also bear the health mark in an oval contour.

 Skimming and other treatments

Depending on the fat content of the milk is divided into:
whole milk: it has a minimum of 3% fat content of the partially skimmed milk: it has a fat content between 1 and 1.8%; skimmed milk has a fat content of less than 0.3%
 

Other types of milk for sale are: condensed milk, powdered milk, and fermented milk.

The milk powder is also said freeze-dried milk.
 The lyophilization is obtained in this way: the milk is sprayed into a reaction chamber, and immediately cooled under high vacuum: the tiny ice crystals formed in this way from milk, instantly sublimate (direct transition from solid to water vapor) , and they are thus eliminated from the gas stream, while the milk powder is collected at the bottom.

 

The most common alteration of the milk is its souring.

 

the fraud

The most common milk fraud are:
abusivatenore skimming fat differently than the stated svelabile with Gerber Butyrometer; issue of adulteration); ◦tenore differently skimming fat from the declared abusive, svelabile with Gerber Butyrometer; issue of adulteration);

dilution (adulteration, svelabile with the determination of the freezing point); reorganization ◦trattamenti not allowed
(For example, soured milk neutralized with the addition of alkali, or addition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for reducing a high bacterial charge; • fresh milk obtained from previously pasteurized milk;
• milk obtained from the reconstitution of milk powder;
• presence of colostrum or mastitis milk.
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