The bread

 The wheat.

The wheat, along with rice, corn, rye, barley and oats, is part of the grain.

The many species of grain present in nature are divided into two basic classes:

  • Wheat
  • durum wheat



From the grinding of wheat, with endosperm crumbly and mealy (Triticum vulgare), you get the flour, are particularly suitable for making bread and baked goods, and durum wheat, with endosperm hard and vitreous (Triticum durum), you are obtained as flour groats and semolina, used by pasta factories for the production of pasta.

The flour (Presidential Decree no. 187/2001)

According to Italian law, ultimately, for "flour" is meant everything that is obtained by grinding grain, namely, as already said, flour from wheat, and groats and semolina from durum wheat.

With the addition of water and with the processing of the dough, the proteins contained in different amounts in both the wheat and in that hard turn into gluten. The% of gluten increases with machining up to a certain point, known as "gluten rupture"; beyond this point, continuing the processing, the pasta tends to flake. From the durum wheat is more gluten shape from soft wheat.

The gluten gives elasticity to the bread and pasta: the elasticity of the "crumb" of the bread, and the elasticity of long pasta, vermicelli type, the action of bending, they are a confirmation; Moreover, the gluten-rich pasta resists better to the "cooking test."

For flours, as well as gluten, it is also important the extraction rate, i.e. the amount of flour that is obtained by grinding 100 kg of wheat. In practice, the lower the extraction rate and the flour is refined.

The flour type "00" because it costs more, even if it produces less gluten, has a lower extraction rate. The greater the number of the degree of grinding (for example, type 1 or type 2), minus the flour is refined and sieved, and also contains more proteins to form gluten; Therefore, professional craft in use, then it is preferred to use type "1" or even "2" flour because they make it more elastic machining.

For the flours of other grains, it is required specification of the raw material, eg. cornmeal (yellow, Common corn, or white, from white corn), barley flour, rice, chestnut.

To understand the differences between the various types of flours, it should be borne in mind, as well as the origin of the flour (ie if from the milling of wheat or from the milling of durum wheat), for which the final product is used (if for bread , or pasta, or sweet), and the degree of grinding and sifting (sieving) that best suits the intended use.

Grinding grain.


The whole grain is ground in mills to obtain flours for use in bakeries and pasta factories.

Loading the mill wheat are obtained type 00 flour, or type 0 or type 1 or type 2.

Loading wheat, you are obtained groats and semolina to make pasta, and whole wheat flour for bread.

The wholemeal flour (ie, whole wheat flour and the integral semolina) are actually only "reassembled" from flour and bran, and are not obtainable by direct milling of the caryopsis Length, because modern mills are prepared today to get only white flours refined.

In the process of grinding and refining, the grains pass through both pairs of cylinders (mills) variously fluted or smooth and at different speeds, and is through a series of vibrating sieves (purifiers).

Rolling mills and purifiers are in succession to each other, and the loaded grain performs a path more or less long depending on the type of flour to be obtained; you can also adjust the "light" existing between the pairs of cylinders.

In the grinding process, the outer part (bran) of the grain is separated from the inner part starchy, obtaining more or less refined flour (ie, type 00, 0, 1, and 2).

However, with this refining process you will lose a good part of vitamins B1, B2, B6, and PP, initially present in the outer part of the grain, in addition to the fiber and to 60% of mineral substances.

For this reason, in some countries it is allowed (but in Italy it is forbidden) to add at the end of processing the substances lost. Over the past decades it has regained importance wholemeal products (bread, pasta, biscuits, etc.), for the beneficial action of dietary fiber, present in the bran, which, as seen, is added at the end of processing.

Below, classification and description of the flour and the flours (D.P.R. 187/2001):
1.Farina wheat: product obtained by grinding and sifting wheat freed from foreign substances and impurities; in descending order of the degree of grinding, they are put on the market the following types: ◾Tipo 00, for cakes.
◾Tipo 0, communal bread.
◾Tipo 1, for biscuits and bread sticks.
◾Tipo 2, used by the laboratories of production of fresh pasta

2.Farina whole wheat, for bread integrale.bla bla bla bla
3.Semolaprodotto granular sharp edge obtained by grinding and sifting durum wheat; It is the main component of the pasta.
4.Semolatoprodotto obtained after separate the semolina, for sifting and milling the residue; It is a product of inferior quality semolina.
5.Semola integraleprodotto granular sharp edge obtained by grinding and sifting durum wheat; It is the main component of the pasta.
wheat 6.Farina durobla bla bla

Of all those nominated, the products are by far the most important and most consumed are the wheat flour and durum wheat and semolina.

The maximum permissible moisture, both for soft wheat flours for flour from durum wheat is 14.5% .Note. Please note that for dried pasta products are used as flour of durum wheat predominantly groats; the high standard of living and the competition automatically bring into suborder use other flours, namely of semolina and durum wheat flour, which do not stand the test of cooking; the integral semolina is used for dietary purposes, for example, to promote intestinal transit.

The bread (Presidential Decree no. 187/2001).


The bread is the oldest (the ancient Egyptians were the first to do so) and the most important human food.

The bread is the product obtained by baking a dough properly raised and prepared with wheat flour, water and yeast, with or without the addition of common salt.

Normally, communal bread shall seek the wheat flour type 0, which is indicated by the simple name of "bread". However, the bread can be produced with wheat flour type 00, type 1 and type 2, with semolina or durum wheat semolina.

If the bread is obtained by mixing different types of flour, to be called the "bread of ...", or "bread ..." ,, followed by the name of characterizing flour used; examples: bread type 1, semolina bread, bread to the caster; if you use whole wheat flour, it says "wholemeal bread."

The bread preparation, types, characteristics.

The bread is prepared by mixing the flour with water, as such or salt, and adding brewer's yeast.

After the dough, it makes the size, and that we proceed to cutting and shaping of individual pieces, such as "rosettes", and then left to rise to the optimum temperature of 30 ° C.

During the rising, important biochemical reactions take place, and the shapes of the dough swell for gas development. The last phase is cooking, or that occurs in the direct heating ovens (which are already at the right temperature, typically around 350 ° C), or in the indirect heating ovens, in which the bread is gradually brought to the temperature suitable, typically between 200 and 270 ° C.

During cooking, continue the reactions (formation of "holes" in the crumb of the bread is due to the leakage of the water vapor coming from mixing and other gases formed during the leavening (with characteristic swelling); the so-called "crust "characteristic of the bread, is due to chemical reactions that occur at higher temperatures).

If well risen and cooked well, (and if the flour is of good quality - but also the organoleptic characteristics of water have influence! -), you have a "good" bread, that is, a light bread, soft, fragrant, and with flaky crust.

The law also allows the production of partly baked bread, and after subjected to freezing, or not, as long as there is on the package, in addition to other indications (type of bread and flour used, price, etc.), even the words: bread frozen partially cooked, or part-baked bread (which obviously is maintained for less time). If at the time of the mix, add other ingredients, you have the special bread, which is precisely called "special bread to '...", for example. p. spec. the oil or butter, milk, raisins, etc.

For the special bread with butter or oil, or other fats permitted by law, the% of fat should not be less than 3%, the dry matter.

The bread is produced in various sizes, namely with different size and shapes of the pieces, and the maximum permitted by law moisture depends on the size, from 29% up to 70 grams, up to 40% over 1000 grammi.Legge on bread : DPR 187/2001



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