Organic and GMO
Target audience and objectives of diet products
The dietary products are foodstuffs intended for particular nutritional uses, namely, for their particular composition or of a particular manufacturing process, have the following characteristics: a) they are clearly different from the current consumption; b) are suitable claimed nutritional purposes; c) are marketed so as to indicate that they fulfill that purpose.
They meet the special nutritional needs of persons whose digestive processes or metabolism are disturbed, or people who are in a special physiological condition and who can obtain special benefit from the assumption of certain controlled substances in foods, or infants or young children in good health.
Regarding labeling, nutritional products must bear on the packaging, besides the usual signs, too: a) of the authorization of the Ministry of Health (Legislative Decree no. 111/92); b) the list of ingredients; c) the particular elements of the qualitative and quantitative composition or the special manufacturing process which confer on the product its particular nutritional characteristics; d) the manner of storage and use if it is necessary to adopt particular expedients depending on the nature of the product; e) the carbohydrate, protein and fat content per 100 g or 100 ml of a commercialized product and for given quantity to be consumed if the product is presented as follows, etc. On the packaging of dietary products you may be given the indication "dietetic" or "regime"; Instead, in the labeling, presentation and advertising of foodstuffs for general consumption it is prohibited to use the title "dietetic" or "regime" either alone or along with other terms.
Genuineness of organic products
For organic food means a food product obtained by adopting appropriate cultivation techniques, and without the use of synthetic chemicals such as fertilizers, fungicides, herbicides, O.G.M., etc .; They are permitted natural fertilizers such as manure, green manure, plant extracts, and pest insects.
Examples of processing techniques are crop rotation - to better utilize the nutrients of the soil and the settlement disadvantage of parasites -, the planting of trees and hedges - refuge, eg birds, natural predators of pests -, and intercropping, that is to cultivate together different plants, one unwelcome pests other. Organic farming is regulated at Community level by EEC Regulation 2091/92, and at the national level by D. M. 220/95.
O.G.M., Genetically Modified Organisms
The topic of O.G.M. It is complex, and here they give only a few hints. GMOs, namely <> are organisms (plants - such as corn, soybeans, tomatoes -, and animals) in which the genetic material has been altered by biotechnology in a way that does not occur naturally by mating or l 'crossing or natural recombination (Legislative Decree. 224/2003).
Biotechnology are technologies that use living organisms (bacteria, yeasts, plant cells and animal) to obtain a higher production of goods or to improve (or modify) certain characteristics of plants and animals.
Examples of O.G.M. are corn and soybeans, freely marketed in the U.S. and in U.E, while the transgenic tomatoes are free to circulate in the U.S. Canada, but not nell'U.E.
The new EU Directive (2001/18 / EC, implemented in Italy by Legislative Decree no. 8 July 2003, n. 224) regulates the complex procedure for the authorization for each individual product containing O.G.M. before being placed on the market: submission of the notification by those who want to market a product containing GMOs; authorization; the renewal; methods of labeling; consumer information; etc.
In particular, the notification for the placing on the market of a GMO product contains information on environmental risk assessment, general information, - including those related to personnel and its training -, information relating to the GMO, the conditions of issue and the potential host environment, the interactions between the GMO and the environment, to the control plans, remediation methods, waste treatment and to the contingency plans in case of emergency, the risk assessment for the agro-biodiversity, agricultural systems and the agro-food industry, etc.).