The wine


The Wine Appellation

Wine is an alcoholic beverage that is obtained by fermentation of fresh grapes or slightly wilted.


The transformation of the must into wine takes place through the fermentation, by the action of certain enzymes, called saccharomycetes: on the basis of an enzymatic reaction (natural biochemical reaction) the sugars contained in grape must (especially glucose) are transformed into ethyl alcohol and dioxide carbon.

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If the transformation of sugars into alcohol is quite complete you are obtained dry wines, dry; if partial, you get the sweet, lovable.


The% volume of ethyl alcohol in wine is precisely measured by the degree of alcohol, and then a 12 ° wine contains 12% ethyl alcohol (ie, 12 ml. Of ethyl alcohol in 100 ml. Of wine, or, if you prefer, 12 liters of ethyl alcohol in 100 liters of wine).

According to EU regulations the alcohol content of wines may not be less than:
wines tavola8,5% vol. (Or 9% for certain areas) for table wines, which must not exceed 15 ° .vini V.Q.P.R.D.9% vol. (Or 9.5% or 10% vol. For certain
areas) for wines psr (Quality Wines Regions Certain Products) .li> liquorosiPer wine liqueur wine, the alcohol content must be not less than 17.5 ° and not more than 21 ° C.
The large variety of wines depends on many factors such as the type of grape, the area of ​​production, the fermentation method, the seasonal pattern.


The two main wine-making techniques with which we get the wine from the grape must have:
1.Vinificazione in red
2.Vinificazione in white

It should be noted that the grape juice that is reddish or straw yellow liquid content in the pulp of the grapes, and which is separated from the pomace (formed by stalks + seed + skin) by means of crushers and torchiatrici machines.

Red wine vinification. In red vinification (in the presence of the marc), also known as vinification with maceration, the must with the marc is sent in tanks in which, besides fermentation, tumultuous, also happens a maceration of the marc, whose coloring substances - in particular 'oenocyanin contained in the skins - pass in the liquid fraction; accordingly, depending on the duration of maceration, we wines more or less colored (reds, cerasuolo, rosé).

It then proceeds to racking, ie the separation of the flower from wine marc.

The pomace with a slight damage pressing a first wine pressing, with a pressing thrust give a second wine pressing, and the residue constitute marc for distilleries (for the production of alcohol).
The flower wine is put in barrels (with or without the wine of 1a and 2a pressing, depending on the case), where it continues a slow fermentation. Before bottling, the young wine (that is bottled by December 31 of the year of harvest) can be clarified, refrigerated, pasteurized, and using fruit to correct the alcohol content. For quality wines (from excellent vineyards, with a good alcohol content and rich in tannins and color) it proceeds to aging, first in oak barrels and then bottled.

White vinification. The white vinification (in the absence of marc) takes place in quite a similar way, with the difference that the fermentation tanks is sent only to the grape must: the pomace are removed first.
You get white wines from white grapes but also from black grapes by little colored pulp (the skins, containing the oenocyanin, we are not!).

Wine Classification

The discipline of the names is contained in Law 10 February 1992 n. 164.

The wines on the market can be divided into:
1.vini table
2.vini QWpsr
3.vini liqueur
flavored 4.vini
sparkling 5.vini

in particular:

Wines from tavola.I, a simple designation of origin, are those common to meal, produced in almost all Italian regions, with little marked characteristics, which vary depending on the place of origin.

 Wines V.Q.P.R.D.I wines psr (wording proposed by the European Communities) may be:
 a) D.O.C. (Designation of origin);
 b) D.O.C.G. (Designation of origin and guaranteed);
 c) I.T.G. (Typical Geographical Indication).

 They are particularly valuable wines for which should be well known the origin as regards both the vine is the production area.
 Just to mention a few: Taurasi, Capri, and the Greek di Tufo Campania; Barolo, Barbera and Nebbiolo in Piedmont; Brunello di Montalcino, Chianti and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano in Tuscany; Frascati, Roman Castles, Est! East! East! Lazio; Alcamo, Moscato di Pantelleria and Malvasia di Lipari Sicily; Vernaccia di Oristano (Sardinia).

 Wines liquorosiI The liqueur wines are obtained from grape must partially
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Of even older wine, beer is a beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malted barley.
Beer differs from the wine by a lower alcohol content, and a higher content of extractive substances, giving it also the characters drink moderately nutritious and nervina.

The beer is obtained from alcoholic fermentation of musts prepared with water and barley malt, with hops amaricati (for a complete definition, see Presidential Decree 272/98).
To clarify this definition, and to understand how come the various types of beer, we need to make some mention of the production process.


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Spirits and liqueurs

Classification and standards of spirits and liqueurs.

They are obtained by distillation of fermented musts of different cereals, or even fruit, so as to maintain the aromatic principles of fermented substances (Article 1, Presidential Decree no. 297/1997).

The fundamental operation of the spirits of the production process is precisely the distillation, which allows the ethyl alcohol concentration, contained in small quantities in fermented.

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Mineral waters

Soft drinks: definition and types

Soft drinks are those devoid or almost of ethyl alcohol (by law, max 1%).

Their conservation is done by addition of sugar, or carbon dioxide, or for pasteurization.

They are the fruit juices soft drinks, syrups, and fancy drinks on the market both as cole (beverages made from plant extracts and essences extracted from cola plants from tropical regions; examples: Coke, pepsicola), and is such as carbonated beverages (carbonated, orange).

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Nervine and spices substances

The nervine substances are called so because they act on the nervous system, and therefore, indirectly, stimulate the processes of digestion and absorption of food.

The main nerve foods are coffee, tea and cocoa, which contain as active ingredients as caffeine, theophylline and theobromine.

These active principles (alkaloids) have all three present in coffee, tea and cocoa, but caffeine is present in coffee, tea in the theophylline and theobromine in cocoa; the first (caffeine) stimulates more the nervous system, theophylline that cardiac instead while theobromine has an intermediate function with respect to the first two; All three have a diuretic effect.

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