The Wine Appellation
Wine is an alcoholic beverage that is obtained by fermentation of fresh grapes or slightly wilted.
The transformation of the must into wine takes place through the fermentation, by the action of certain enzymes, called saccharomycetes: on the basis of an enzymatic reaction (natural biochemical reaction) the sugars contained in grape must (especially glucose) are transformed into ethyl alcohol and dioxide carbon.
If the transformation of sugars into alcohol is quite complete you are obtained dry wines, dry; if partial, you get the sweet, lovable.
The% volume of ethyl alcohol in wine is precisely measured by the degree of alcohol, and then a 12 ° wine contains 12% ethyl alcohol (ie, 12 ml. Of ethyl alcohol in 100 ml. Of wine, or, if you prefer, 12 liters of ethyl alcohol in 100 liters of wine).
According to EU regulations the alcohol content of wines may not be less than:
wines tavola8,5% vol. (Or 9% for certain areas) for table wines, which must not exceed 15 ° .vini V.Q.P.R.D.9% vol. (Or 9.5% or 10% vol. For certain
areas) for wines psr (Quality Wines Regions Certain Products) .li> liquorosiPer wine liqueur wine, the alcohol content must be not less than 17.5 ° and not more than 21 ° C.
The large variety of wines depends on many factors such as the type of grape, the area of production, the fermentation method, the seasonal pattern.
The two main wine-making techniques with which we get the wine from the grape must have:
1.Vinificazione in red
2.Vinificazione in white
It should be noted that the grape juice that is reddish or straw yellow liquid content in the pulp of the grapes, and which is separated from the pomace (formed by stalks + seed + skin) by means of crushers and torchiatrici machines.
Red wine vinification. In red vinification (in the presence of the marc), also known as vinification with maceration, the must with the marc is sent in tanks in which, besides fermentation, tumultuous, also happens a maceration of the marc, whose coloring substances - in particular 'oenocyanin contained in the skins - pass in the liquid fraction; accordingly, depending on the duration of maceration, we wines more or less colored (reds, cerasuolo, rosé).
It then proceeds to racking, ie the separation of the flower from wine marc.
The pomace with a slight damage pressing a first wine pressing, with a pressing thrust give a second wine pressing, and the residue constitute marc for distilleries (for the production of alcohol).
The flower wine is put in barrels (with or without the wine of 1a and 2a pressing, depending on the case), where it continues a slow fermentation. Before bottling, the young wine (that is bottled by December 31 of the year of harvest) can be clarified, refrigerated, pasteurized, and using fruit to correct the alcohol content. For quality wines (from excellent vineyards, with a good alcohol content and rich in tannins and color) it proceeds to aging, first in oak barrels and then bottled.
White vinification. The white vinification (in the absence of marc) takes place in quite a similar way, with the difference that the fermentation tanks is sent only to the grape must: the pomace are removed first.
You get white wines from white grapes but also from black grapes by little colored pulp (the skins, containing the oenocyanin, we are not!).
The discipline of the names is contained in Law 10 February 1992 n. 164.
The wines on the market can be divided into:
Wines from tavola.I, a simple designation of origin, are those common to meal, produced in almost all Italian regions, with little marked characteristics, which vary depending on the place of origin.
Wines V.Q.P.R.D.I wines psr (wording proposed by the European Communities) may be:
a) D.O.C. (Designation of origin);
b) D.O.C.G. (Designation of origin and guaranteed);
c) I.T.G. (Typical Geographical Indication).
They are particularly valuable wines for which should be well known the origin as regards both the vine is the production area.
Just to mention a few: Taurasi, Capri, and the Greek di Tufo Campania; Barolo, Barbera and Nebbiolo in Piedmont; Brunello di Montalcino, Chianti and Vino Nobile di Montepulciano in Tuscany; Frascati, Roman Castles, Est! East! East! Lazio; Alcamo, Moscato di Pantelleria and Malvasia di Lipari Sicily; Vernaccia di Oristano (Sardinia).
Wines liquorosiI The liqueur wines are obtained from grape must partially
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