Written by Zeferino Siani. Posted in Lesson 8
The milk is characterized by contributions in high quality 'biological proteins (lactalbumin and casein), and for the balanced intake of calcium and phosphorus.
The milk proteins, represented by '80% casein and 20% from lactalbumin, ensure a third of the average daily requirement.
These proteins contain the right amounts and proportions of all the amino acids the body needs, and in particular those essential amino acids that the body is not 'able to manufacture for itself.
The fats found in cow's milk are saturated for two thirds, characterized by good digestibility 'and with limited abilities to raise cholesterol levels in the blood.
In addition, the availability on the market of milk semi-skimmed and skimmed adjusts very well fat intake by bodies with disturbed metabolism.
In milk carbohydrates are represented only by lactose, which is not found in any other food, and it 'important for the development of nerve tissue in the first months of life.
Calcium and phosphorus are essential nutrients that are important for the construction and maintenance of bones and teeth, phosphorus and also for the defense of the nervous system. The milk contains more calcium than phosphorus (unlike other widely used foods, such as cereals, legumes, etc., For which the opposite is true) and plays a role in balancing diets that otherwise would rachitogene.
Rules on production and trade.
The production and trade of milk and milk-based products are regulated by various laws.
We mention the most important, in chronological order:
• D.P.R. January 14, 1997, n. 54
• Law August 3, 2004, n. 204
For more detail, you can access to the originals of the two provisions mentioned in the list by clicking on their names in the Extra section.
Presidential Decree January 14, 1997, 54
This law is entitled: "Regulations implementing the 92/46 and 92/47 / EEC on the production and placing on the market of milk and milk-based products".
The Presidential Decree n.54 / 97, consisting of 23 different art. and from the four Annexes A, B, C, D, after having introduced the scope of the dpr (article 1), and introduced into the next art.2 the most important definitions, such as "raw milk", "food heat-treated milk "," products based on milk (dairy products, and composite milk products) ", switch to treat, among others, the following topics: requirements for the production, heat-treated milk, health control, self-control (l ' HACCP for the milk processing companies), standards for establishments and centers, etc. We then the four annexes, which the articles refer to the details and operational rules.
The Annex A concerns the conditions for the admission of raw milk to processing establishments and processing.
Annex B deals with the general conditions and requirements for the approval of establishments for the treatment and processing establishments.
Annex C, the most important, are the requirements for the production of heat-treated milk and milk-based products: in particular, in Chapter 1, paragraph A, paragraph 4 of the pasteurized milk requirements are established and paragraph 5 unit sales of UHT milk.
Appendix D is the tasks and skills of the Community Reference Laboratory, based in Paris.
Law August 3, 2004, 204
This law is entitled: "Conversion into law, with amendments, of Decree-Law of 24 June 2004, n. 157, laying down urgent provisions for the labeling of certain food products.
The product names "fresh pasteurized milk" and "high quality fresh milk pasteurized", to be reported in labeling cow's milk for human consumption, are reserved exclusively to the milk that complies with the law.
The expiration date of "fresh pasteurized milk" and "high quality fresh milk pasteurized 'and' determined in the sixth day following that of the heat treatment, except that the manufacturer does not indicate a shorter period.
The use of the term 'fresh' in the sales names of cow's milk for human consumption and 'reserved for products whose shelf life does not exceed that of the six days of the date of heat treatment.
The labeling of milk must carry the mandatory, in addition to other indications required by law (Legislative Decree 109/92), the indication of the place of origin or provenance.
Obviously, the milk is subjected to hygienic and sanitary controls, from the time of production in the companies until the time of sale to the final consumer.
They are subject to permissions, and auditing: Companies agricultural production (controls on the cow's health, but also on hygiene controls of local Milking - ie, the stables, the personnel, s
Milk industry and derivatives.
By law, the term "milk" shall mean cow's milk. Otherwise, you must specify the origin, for example, "goat milk", "buffalo milk", etc.
Below, we describe briefly the general scheme of the products obtained from the processing of milk.