Seafood products

The vehicles and containers used for the transport of frozen and refrigerated counters and cupboards foods intended for the sale of such product must be equipped with the necessary devices intended to ensure the maintenance of the temperature within the terms provided by the present decree (Art. 11).

The method for a spot check temperature and how the samples shall be determined on the implementation of Community provisions by decree of the Minister of Industry, Commerce and Handicrafts, in consultation with the Minister of Health (Art .12).

Are there different penalties, depending on the type of offense (see Decree. N. 110/92, January 27, Appendix).


The seafood, fresh and frozen, placed on the market for sale to consumers include:


The molluscs


The frozen fish


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The milk

The milk is characterized by contributions in high quality 'biological proteins (lactalbumin and casein), and for the balanced intake of calcium and phosphorus.
The milk proteins, represented by '80% casein and 20% from lactalbumin, ensure a third of the average daily requirement.
These proteins contain the right amounts and proportions of all the amino acids the body needs, and in particular those essential amino acids that the body is not 'able to manufacture for itself.

The fats found in cow's milk are saturated for two thirds, characterized by good digestibility 'and with limited abilities to raise cholesterol levels in the blood.
In addition, the availability on the market of milk semi-skimmed and skimmed adjusts very well fat intake by bodies with disturbed metabolism.
In milk carbohydrates are represented only by lactose, which is not found in any other food, and it 'important for the development of nerve tissue in the first months of life.

Calcium and phosphorus are essential nutrients that are important for the construction and maintenance of bones and teeth, phosphorus and also for the defense of the nervous system. The milk contains more calcium than phosphorus (unlike other widely used foods, such as cereals, legumes, etc., For which the opposite is true) and plays a role in balancing diets that otherwise would rachitogene.

Rules on production and trade.


The production and trade of milk and milk-based products are regulated by various laws.

We mention the most important, in chronological order:
• D.P.R. January 14, 1997, n. 54
• Law August 3, 2004, n. 204

For more detail, you can access to the originals of the two provisions mentioned in the list by clicking on their names in the Extra section.

 Presidential Decree January 14, 1997, 54

This law is entitled: "Regulations implementing the 92/46 and 92/47 / EEC on the production and placing on the market of milk and milk-based products".

The Presidential Decree n.54 / 97, consisting of 23 different art. and from the four Annexes A, B, C, D, after having introduced the scope of the dpr (article 1), and introduced into the next art.2 the most important definitions, such as "raw milk", "food heat-treated milk "," products based on milk (dairy products, and composite milk products) ", switch to treat, among others, the following topics: requirements for the production, heat-treated milk, health control, self-control (l ' HACCP for the milk processing companies), standards for establishments and centers, etc. We then the four annexes, which the articles refer to the details and operational rules.

The Annex A concerns the conditions for the admission of raw milk to processing establishments and processing.

Annex B deals with the general conditions and requirements for the approval of establishments for the treatment and processing establishments.

Annex C, the most important, are the requirements for the production of heat-treated milk and milk-based products: in particular, in Chapter 1, paragraph A, paragraph 4 of the pasteurized milk requirements are established and paragraph 5 unit sales of UHT milk.

Appendix D is the tasks and skills of the Community Reference Laboratory, based in Paris.

 Law August 3, 2004, 204

This law is entitled: "Conversion into law, with amendments, of Decree-Law of 24 June 2004, n. 157, laying down urgent provisions for the labeling of certain food products.

The product names "fresh pasteurized milk" and "high quality fresh milk pasteurized", to be reported in labeling cow's milk for human consumption, are reserved exclusively to the milk that complies with the law.

The expiration date of "fresh pasteurized milk" and "high quality fresh milk pasteurized 'and' determined in the sixth day following that of the heat treatment, except that the manufacturer does not indicate a shorter period.

The use of the term 'fresh' in the sales names of cow's milk for human consumption and 'reserved for products whose shelf life does not exceed that of the six days of the date of heat treatment.

The labeling of milk must carry the mandatory, in addition to other indications required by law (Legislative Decree 109/92), the indication of the place of origin or provenance.

Obviously, the milk is subjected to hygienic and sanitary controls, from the time of production in the companies until the time of sale to the final consumer.

They are subject to permissions, and auditing: Companies agricultural production (controls on the cow's health, but also on hygiene controls of local Milking - ie, the stables, the personnel, s

Milk industry and derivatives.
By law, the term "milk" shall mean cow's milk. Otherwise, you must specify the origin, for example, "goat milk", "buffalo milk", etc.
Below, we describe briefly the general scheme of the products obtained from the processing of milk.


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Derivatives of milk

Depending on the technology and, in particular, to the curd processing temperature are defined: cheeses uncooked pasta, when the curd undergoes no heating; semi-cooked cheese, the curds when the heating does not exceed 48 ° C; cheeses in cooked pasta, if obtained by heating the curd over 48 ° C.

The pasta filata cheese, characterized by a spinning of the curd in hot water, may represent a group of its own.

On the basis of the period of maturation, the cheese can be divided into: fresh cheese, when not undergo curing and are consumed within a few days from production; fior di latte mozzarella aged cheeses short maturity, having matured for not more than one month; Caciotta, growth medium aged cheese ripening when the maturation period does not exceed six months; cheese, Fontina cheese ripened cheeses slow maturation, from 6 months of ripening onwards; grana padano (1-2 years), Parmesan cheese (1-3 years, and then, based on the quality, we have the "Chosen" categories, "1", "2", "3", ascertained by typing).

It 'important to note that the vesting period and the term of the product are two completely different things. The expiration date, in fact indicates the lapse of time during which the finished product can be stored in appropriate conditions

On the basis of the designation of origin: it can be produced only in particular areas and must have certain characteristics by law.

-------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ Fresh Dairy


famous Cheese

The Italian cheeses are numerous. We will only consider someone among those DOC or because the most important, or because they are closer to us.

The Parmesan cheese (a native of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna to the left of the Reno and Mantua to the right of the Po) is a semi-fat cheese with a grainy texture, slow-maturing, in semi-cooked, pale yellow flesh color. It is used in the evening milking milk and that of the early morning. In the area of ​​the Reggiano, the cows can only be fed with fresh fodder. In fact, Parmigiano Reggiano is produced from April to early November, with the exception of the winter months, a period instead which produces Grana Vernengo with the use of a diet based on dry forage (silage).

The grana padano includes as many as 25 municipalities (all of Piedmont, Lombardy with Mantova excluded, the rest of Emilia Romagna where you do the Parmesan cheese, and Veneto, Belluno excluded). It has almost the same features of parmesan cheese.

The buffalo mozzarella dates from the twelfth century. News from the San Lorenzo monastery in Capua. It 'a fresh cheese made of spun paste, porcelain white color, glossy surface.

The Asiago and Piave addition to DOP, are "Mountain products." Of mountain cheeses (by law, pastures and dairy farms over 600 meters) there are a dozen in all of Italy. With their recognition, it is avoided depopulation of important hilly areas, and the extinction of the production of cheeses of excellent quality.

cheese Alterations

The most common alterations are: swelling (formation of gas bubbles in its interior), softening, casting, flaking, cracking, crazing, parasites. (N.B. The Presidential Decree no. 54/97 is also, art. 9, of long ripening cheeses; dpr this is also related to products derived from milk).


By law (Law 19 February 1992, n. 142) the butter is the product obtained exclusively from the cream (cream) cow, with a content of not less than 82% fat.

It 'also allowed the production of butter at a reduced fat content (or "three-quarter butter") with the 60-62% fat and low-fat butter (or "half butter") with the 39-41% fat (but these products are hard to find!).

The more or less yellowish color of butter, when it is not an artificial coloring added, comes from carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, present in the fodder used to feed the animal's milk. They are produced also special butters for confectionery production (anhydrous butter), to produce ice cream (buter-oil), and butter used for frying (concentrated butter); these special types all have a% of more than 99% fat.

The cream or cream of milk is that fat part of the milk that comes to the surface for spontaneous outcrop (fats have lower specific weight), or which is separated by centrifugation.

The main difference between the cream (cream) and butter is in the form it takes the fat contained in them: while the cream is an emulsion of fat in water, butter is an emulsion of water in fat.

The production of classic butter, followed by small and medium companies, consists of the following steps: · the cream, obtained by centrifugal



The cheeses
The cheese is a derivative of milk, typically that of vaccine (to a greater extent than whole, but also from milk or partially or wholly skimmed milk, or cream); production of considerable interest is also from buffalo milk, sheep, goat.


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