Derivatives of milk
Depending on the technology and, in particular, to the curd processing temperature are defined: cheeses uncooked pasta, when the curd undergoes no heating; semi-cooked cheese, the curds when the heating does not exceed 48 ° C; cheeses in cooked pasta, if obtained by heating the curd over 48 ° C.
The pasta filata cheese, characterized by a spinning of the curd in hot water, may represent a group of its own.
On the basis of the period of maturation, the cheese can be divided into: fresh cheese, when not undergo curing and are consumed within a few days from production; fior di latte mozzarella aged cheeses short maturity, having matured for not more than one month; Caciotta, growth medium aged cheese ripening when the maturation period does not exceed six months; cheese, Fontina cheese ripened cheeses slow maturation, from 6 months of ripening onwards; grana padano (1-2 years), Parmesan cheese (1-3 years, and then, based on the quality, we have the "Chosen" categories, "1", "2", "3", ascertained by typing).
It 'important to note that the vesting period and the term of the product are two completely different things. The expiration date, in fact indicates the lapse of time during which the finished product can be stored in appropriate conditions
On the basis of the designation of origin: it can be produced only in particular areas and must have certain characteristics by law.
-------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------ Fresh Dairy
The Italian cheeses are numerous. We will only consider someone among those DOC or because the most important, or because they are closer to us.
The Parmesan cheese (a native of Parma, Reggio Emilia, Modena, Bologna to the left of the Reno and Mantua to the right of the Po) is a semi-fat cheese with a grainy texture, slow-maturing, in semi-cooked, pale yellow flesh color. It is used in the evening milking milk and that of the early morning. In the area of the Reggiano, the cows can only be fed with fresh fodder. In fact, Parmigiano Reggiano is produced from April to early November, with the exception of the winter months, a period instead which produces Grana Vernengo with the use of a diet based on dry forage (silage).
The grana padano includes as many as 25 municipalities (all of Piedmont, Lombardy with Mantova excluded, the rest of Emilia Romagna where you do the Parmesan cheese, and Veneto, Belluno excluded). It has almost the same features of parmesan cheese.
The buffalo mozzarella dates from the twelfth century. News from the San Lorenzo monastery in Capua. It 'a fresh cheese made of spun paste, porcelain white color, glossy surface.
The Asiago and Piave addition to DOP, are "Mountain products." Of mountain cheeses (by law, pastures and dairy farms over 600 meters) there are a dozen in all of Italy. With their recognition, it is avoided depopulation of important hilly areas, and the extinction of the production of cheeses of excellent quality.
The most common alterations are: swelling (formation of gas bubbles in its interior), softening, casting, flaking, cracking, crazing, parasites. (N.B. The Presidential Decree no. 54/97 is also, art. 9, of long ripening cheeses; dpr this is also related to products derived from milk).
By law (Law 19 February 1992, n. 142) the butter is the product obtained exclusively from the cream (cream) cow, with a content of not less than 82% fat.
It 'also allowed the production of butter at a reduced fat content (or "three-quarter butter") with the 60-62% fat and low-fat butter (or "half butter") with the 39-41% fat (but these products are hard to find!).
The more or less yellowish color of butter, when it is not an artificial coloring added, comes from carotene, a precursor of vitamin A, present in the fodder used to feed the animal's milk. They are produced also special butters for confectionery production (anhydrous butter), to produce ice cream (buter-oil), and butter used for frying (concentrated butter); these special types all have a% of more than 99% fat.
The cream or cream of milk is that fat part of the milk that comes to the surface for spontaneous outcrop (fats have lower specific weight), or which is separated by centrifugation.
The main difference between the cream (cream) and butter is in the form it takes the fat contained in them: while the cream is an emulsion of fat in water, butter is an emulsion of water in fat.
The production of classic butter, followed by small and medium companies, consists of the following steps: · the cream, obtained by centrifugal
The cheese is a derivative of milk, typically that of vaccine (to a greater extent than whole, but also from milk or partially or wholly skimmed milk, or cream); production of considerable interest is also from buffalo milk, sheep, goat.
Production of cheese
Whatever the starting milk, essentially the cheese is obtained by coagulation of the casein contained in it, which is the main protein, and subsequent elimination of the whey, which constitutes the liquid part: as a result of this concentration, you get the cheeses , divided into soft cheeses, cheese semi-hard cheese and hard cheeses, depending on the% of residual water.
Coagulation is, for the production of almost all cheeses, the precipitation operation of casein by rennet or rennet (enzymatic). For soft cheeses it is also makes a coagulation by acid via (with citric acid or tartaric acid).
From clotting derives an elastic white mass that has the consistency of a jelly, said curd, and that withdrawing leaves exude whey, causing the separation of various substances in suspension or in solution: fat, casein and calcium phosphate remain almost whole in the curd; milk sugar and soluble salts pass entirely in serum.
The elimination of the whey is then continued with the crushing (which reduces the rennin in caseating granules) and cooking; in the course of these operations to some particular cheeses they are added ferments, molds or various flavorings (Tarragon, pepper, cloves, garlic). The milk clotting phases, crushing and cooking the curd constitute the cheesemaking process; poured into suitable molds (molds) the granules are then subjected to the operations of dripping and compression, which follows the salting, which can be carried out dry, with direct and repeated addition of salt, or brine.
The last stages of the manufacturing process are those cheese ripening and maturation.
The maturation is necessary for all cheeses: in the course of it, the fermenting agents (enzymes, peptides, amino acids) contained in the dough and the external and internal microorganisms (lactobacilli, streptococci, fungi) produce any modification which would give rise to the finished product, ready to be consumed; for certain cheeses, medium or long maturation, it follows a maturation phase, needed to do to buy the final product the ideal organoleptic characteristics, in terms of color, texture, flavor and aroma.
Note. The term "cheese" comes from the ancient greek "formos", namely the wicker basket where they used to store the curds, apparently to give it shape. The "formos" greek later became the "shape" of the Romans who, in turn, became, in the old French, "formage" (cheese) put in shape, and in medieval Latin (caseum) formaticum to arrive finally our "cheese" and the French "fromage".
Classification of cheeses
To classify cheeses, many are adoptable criteria. The characteristics of a cheese depends on its composition, its consistency (which in turn depends on the% of water, - moisture -), from the production technology, the ripening period.
Depending on the fat content can be differentiated: cheese prepared with whole milk whose fat content must be greater than 35% of dry matter (except for those doc and for typical which are regulated by the respective production disciplinary). light cheeses, when the fat content varies between 20 and 35% of dry matter. low-fat cheeses, prepared with skimmed milk, with a fat content of less than 20% of the dry substance.
The fatty substance content should be evaluated in relation to dry matter (what remains after the removal of water) and not on the cheese as it is, since the law is not pronounced on the water content of the cheese that, being able to vary, alter the percentages if they were related to the cheese as a whole.
Depending on the type of milk: cow, goat, sheep, buffalo.
Depending on the consistency, which, of course, is in close correlation with the content of water, they are distinguished: soft cheeses, with a higher water content to 45%; cheeses semi-hard cheese, if the water content is between 40 and 45%; hard cheeses, when the quantity of water is less than 40%.
Depending on the technology and, in particular, to the curd processing temperature are defined: cheeses uncooked pasta, when the curd undergoes no heating; semi-cooked cheese, the curds when the heating does not exceed 48 ° C; cheeses in cooked pasta, if obtained by heating the curd over 4