Of even older wine, beer is a beverage obtained by alcoholic fermentation of malted barley.
Beer differs from the wine by a lower alcohol content, and a higher content of extractive substances, giving it also the characters drink moderately nutritious and nervina.
The beer is obtained from alcoholic fermentation of musts prepared with water and barley malt, with hops amaricati (for a complete definition, see Presidential Decree 272/98).
To clarify this definition, and to understand how come the various types of beer, we need to make some mention of the production process.
The preparation of the beer consists of several stages:
2.Essiccamento, and eventual roasting
4.Cottura the wort, and addition of hops
5.Fermentazione and maturation
6.Stoccaggio and bottling
Preparation of malt.
The first ingredient of beer is barley; the best one is the couplet, with two row of seeds, which are larger and uniform compared to those rowed barley, and which therefore give a much more regular trend in malting (in Europe mainly uses the two-row barley, while in the United States is widespread enough use-rowed barley).
The barley is first put into maceration tanks where it absorbs up to 45% water, which is necessary to reactivate the germination, ie the reactivation of human embryos that had stopped to seed harvest. The macerated barley passes to germinatoi, where it develops the seedling. With the germination has the development and enrichment of the enzyme systems (amylase), and you get the "green malt".
Drying, and possible roasting.
The ground malt is then ready for drying.
The drying time is 24 hours for light malts, at temperatures of about 30 ° C., and 48 hours for dark malts, at higher temperatures, of about 80 ° C.
With the drying, roasting and possibly, in addition to achieving a reduction in moisture, it also stops the germination and promotes the color development and the fundamental characteristics of malt.
The malt is then passed through a sieve to remove the sprouts (which would give the beer a bad taste), and then, finely ground, is sent to the silos, to undergo the subsequent phase of mashing.
The manufacturing processes of malt and beer are quite distinct.
The product malt is stored in silos, before being sent to the brewing process. Malt and beer can be prepared in distinct zones of the same plant, or the malt produced in a plant is then sent to another plant for the production of beer.
The ground and dried green malt, taken from the silos, is subjected to mashing, ie it is mixed with hot water until it reaches the optimum temperature for the hydrolysis: in two or three hours will shape the sugary wort.
Cooking must and addition of hops.
The wort then passes to cooking: is immersed in a boiler and heated to boiling point for a time ranging from 1-1.5 hours for light beers, and up to 2-2.5 hours for the strong beers.
During cooking, which serves for the sterilization and the concentration of the wort is added to the hops, which gives the characteristic bitter flavor and unmistakable aroma to beer.
The wort is then cooled and brought to temperature suitable for fermentation: from 4 ° to 6 ° C for the low fermentation, and from 15 ° to 20 ° for the high end.
fermentation and maturation phase.
The fermentation of the beer would not be possible without the yeast. For beer are used pure cultures of saccararomiceti saccararomiceti cerevisiae or carlsbergensis, operating the splitting of the sugar (maltose) in ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide.
Depending on the ferments, the characteristics of the must, the reaction temperature and other operating conditions are obtained by fermentation beers of low or high fermentation. The young beer is made later mature (secondary fermentation) in large vats, usually made of steel, to the oscillating temperature between 0 ° and 2 ° C, for 4 or 5 weeks: the beer is saturated with carbon dioxide, is clarified and improves, then , taste.
Storage and bottling.
The beer, then, is filtered and centrifuged to remove the residues of opacity, pasteurized, and finally bottled or kegged.
If kept in a refrigerator between 5 ° and 6 ° C., the beer is ready to be served.
When removing the cap, the carbon dioxide escapes with the foam, a direct evidence of the enzymatic transformations complex process whereby a large molecule such as starch