The food meat
The food meat
Definition. For food meat means all parts of domestic animals of certain species intended for human consumption.
The species of edible animals are cattle, sheep, pigs, horses and goats; in addition there are farm animals, namely chickens, turkeys, ducks, geese, rabbits, and pigeons.
For fresh meat are those preserved only with the cold, or those preserved in vacuum or modified atmosphere.
Meat is a prime source of protein
The meat is a prime source of protein, ie of nutrients with plastic function, "builders" essential to the development and maintenance of the organism.
The proteins of beef, but also other kinds of meat are of high biological value, because they contain the eight amino acids called "essential" that the organism is not able to process, and therefore must be present in food.
In addition, the beef has a great content of iron, vitamin PP and vitamin B complex
The lean meat, in principle, contains about 20% protein (less for fatty meats, even below 15% for a pig fat, but above this value for a lean pig), 2% fat, 2% of extractive substances, and 1% ash.
The percentage of water varies, depending on the type of meat, 60 to 75%.
For cattle, the bovine registry exists (DM January 31, 2002), based on ear tags, the animal passports, the entry and exit registers in each company, it must have a fitness recognition by the health authorities ( also slaughterhouses) and an EC approval number.
Read. They are not allowed for human consumption (Legislative Decree no. 18 April 1994, n. 286) that meat from sick animals, and meat from animals not subject to visit ante-mortem and post-mortem inspection by the official veterinarian.
On the frozen pre-packaged in the original packaging must be present, in legible and indelible letters the following information:
a) the term "frozen meat";
b) the name and headquarters Company's freezing;
c) the seat of the freezing plant;
d) the health mark and its labeling (see below);
e) the net weight;
f) the species of membership and its cutting;
g) the packing date code;
h) the storage temperature, and instructions for proper thawing.
Compulsory information on the label of the packaged beef, accompanied by the health mark: Country of the birth, growth country, the animal traceability code or group of animals and general traceability code label, indicating the country where the 'animal was slaughtered and the number of the slaughterhouse, indication of the country where the carcass was cut and the number of the establishment, net weight and amount, and the price per Kg.
The sale of fresh meat in form ambulante by the use of parking places is allowed if these are connected to the water mains, sewer and electrical, or if the vehicle operator has the legal requirements.
The stores authorized to sell fresh meat, frozen or thawed must display inside and outside year insignia or tables with "fresh meat", or "frozen" or "thawed", followed by the animal species; for example, "fresh beef."
The labels affixed to the meat exposed to the public must include the following information: price, type of meat (fresh, frozen, thawed), meat species (beef, pork, poultry, sheep, etc.). For example: fresh veal, xx, yy € / Kgr .; frozen chicken meat, xx, yy € / Kgr.), etc.
The health mark is oval in shape (min. 6.5 * 4.5 cm.), Containing the name of the country, number of slaughter and its type system, and the words "EC".
The slaughter of these animals must be performed in public slaughterhouses, municipalities or private organizations, which must meet all structural and health standards required by law for the stages of slaughter, cutting, storage and transport of meat fresh.
The slaughter must be performed with rapid and preceded by animal stunning techniques. Immediately after slaughter, the fresh meat must be subjected to the temperatures required by law, for the entire chain.
Immediately after slaughter, the meat is tough. To make it tender, the meat is subjected to a maturation period of said maturation, which consists in kept in cold storage for 3-5 days at a temperature between + 2 ° and 4 ° C.
Elements of assessment in cattle
Elements of assessment. The main elements of the assessment of butcher animals (especially cattle) and their meats are age, cutting, race, and secondly, and only for adult animals, even sex.
Specifically: v race, with various attitudes; we have: early races, which grow quickly, and late breeds, which grow more slowly; hardy breeds, which are adapted to harsh environments and poor nutrition, and races less adaptable to the environment; breeds with aptitude for the production of meat, milk and work, and other breeds with only one or two of these attitudes; regarding the latter, we report the following cases: Ø the Romagna, the Chianina (famous) and the Marche, on business and meat; Piedmontese, for meat and milk; Friulian red spotted (Simmenthal) for milk, meat and work v age; as the flesh of young or very young animals is more tender and lean, of course age it is another essential element to determine the commercial value of a bovine animal; for example, the veal is obviously more tender than beef; Ø The family of cattle includes: Veal (6-10 weeks), beef (from 10 weeks to 18 months), beef (castrated male, with less than 5 years old), oxen (castrated male, with more than five years), bull and cow. Ø in cattle the age is determined by the incisor teeth, from milk or from adults, which are present only in the lower jaw (in the upper part, missing, replaced by a callosity said fibrous labrum); these are called incisors, depending on their location, central incisors, median and cantons. Only two weeks later, the calf has all eight incisors, which in three to four months are matched (same height), and then more and more leveled (for use against the fibrous labrum following rumination). From their appearance, the expert is able to deduce the age of the animal with sufficient precision. Ø in sheep, horses and pigs, the incisors are present in the upper and lower jaw, and also in this case it belongs to the age of the animal based on the number of milk teeth replaced. The sheep family includes lambs, kids and lambs.
v cutting; the greater commercial value cuts are those formed by muscles with little connective and adipose tissue, devoid of tendons, ligaments, cartilage; we meat from: Ø first category (meat of the hindquarters): fillet, rump, roast beef (sirloin), magatello, walnut Ø second category (meat of the front part): slice means, pink, codon, Real biancostato Ø 3a category (head, neck, abdomen, lower limbs): brisket, neck, etc.
v Sex is important, especially for adult animals (for meat quality difference). Bulls and steers castrated belatedly give coarse meat. Finally, one sees the animal's conformation, which is also handled, to ascertain the state of nutrition or animal fattening.