Sugars and allied
Sugars are a very large family of compounds.
In nature we have a lot of sugar. The specific term sugar, commonly used in food, is reserved for the sucrose, which are industrially manufactured in Italy is extracted from sugar beet, a plant typical of the temperate zones, and also elsewhere from sugar cane, a plant typical of tropical regions.
Monosaccharides - disaccharides - polysaccharides.
Chemically, sugars are carbohydrates, composed of molecules whose elements are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The sugar family consists of three different classes of sugars known as monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. These classes are characterized by lower or higher molecular complexity, depending on which are formed from one, two or more molecules of simple sugars, ome is evident from the following list of definitions.
MonosaccaridiI monosaccharides are formed by a single molecule of simple sugars. For example, glucose, which is mainly found in grapes, and from which is obtained by fermentation, the wine; glucose is also used to prepare cakes, jams, candies, candy, liquor, etc .; then again fructose, which it is located in ripe fruit, and many others, which for brevity not citiamo.DisaccaridiI disaccharides are formed by the natural combination of two molecules of simple sugars.
Among these the most important is precisely the sucrose, resulting from the union of glucose and fructose, and which is located in sugar beet and sugar cane to about 18%.
We then maltose (two alpha-glucose units), which is obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch, and which is located in the malt of barley and wheat, and used, along with other components, in the preparation of polysaccharides birra.PolisaccaridiI they are formed by more molecules of simple sugars, such as starch, which is located in potatoes, cereals, etc.
The complete classification of sugar is complex. The reason for this complexity resides in the fact that in each class the three constituent elements of the molecule, namely carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, can be linked together in a different way, and this different dispozione is the cause of chemical and physical properties different , and therefore of different compounds.
Beets, the raw material from which sugar is obtained, are processed in sugar.
Here the beets are reduced in tapes, and treated in speakers with hot water, obtained by extraction of a so-called "sugar sauce" (which is the liquid part from which to obtain sugar), together with the "pulp exhausted", byproduct, used as feed for animals.
The gravy is refined, freeing it from the non-sugar (the so-called sludge), and then subjected to successive vacuum concentrations in multiple-effect evaporators.
When the sugar solution has reached the appropriate concentration, we proceed to crystallization (just enter in the sugar solution a small amount of crystalline sugar at the right time to instantly obtain the crystallization of the whole solution, the so-called "massecuite"), and the subsequent centrifugation of "cooked mass", obtaining raw sugar and molasses.
The raw sugar is refined later, while molasses is stored, to extract the alcohol after the sugar year.
In addition to direct consumption sugars they are in demand by the confectionery industries and small artisan producers who operate in the fields of pastry, ice cream and chocolate. Also the canning industries of jams, jams, jellies and fruit juices, using substantial amounts of sugars, both as sweeteners, both as preservatives (in solutions with concentrations of not less than 60% sugars block the development of microbial activity).
Honey and other natural sweeteners.
In addition to sucrose (common sugar), which is the most important natural sweetener and more widespread, also an important place should be reserved for honey, which is a better sweetener common sugar, because more easily digestible and more nutritious.
Natural honey is made by bees from the nectar of flowers or other sugary juices.
To produce one pound of honey bees must visit more than two million flowers.
The developed are 303 kilocalories per 100 grams of honey.
The composition of honey is complex contains mainly glucose, fructose, mellocosio, many vitamins and minerals, and to some antibiotic substances.
They can distinguish different varieties of honey on the market: a) according to the floral origin (millefiori, acacia honey, linden, mountain flowers, etc.). b) according to the method of manufacture (centrifuged honey, drained, with honeycomb pieces, comb honey, etc.); c) according to the aspect (smooth, dense, crystallized).
It may be adulterated with added sugar, molasses, dextrin, ecc.Tra synthetic sweeteners include saccharin (E954, with sweetening power 300 times greater than that of sugar, used by diabetics), and aspartame (E951, with sweetening power 180 times greater than that of sugar), already treated in the section on food additives.